THE POSTER ABOVE IS HOT-LINKED TO AN EXTENSION THAT INCLUDES WHO WE WERE (Ancient Afrikan History) PRIOR TO OUR HOLOCAUST.
MY THESIS IS” WE, THE MASSES OF AFRIKANS IN AMERICA, ARE STILL NOT UP FROM SLAVERY”, BUT AT THE SAME TIME MANY ARE FIGHTING FIERCE BATTLES ON MANY FRONTS FOR OUR COLLECTIVE SOCIAL, POLITICAL, ECONOMIC, CULTURAL AND EDUCATIONAL FREEDOM–RBG EDUCATION IS A PART OF THAT NEVER ENDING BATTLE.
This was the title of the 1901 autobiography of Booker T. Washington detailing his slow and steady rise from a slave child during the Civil War, to the difficulties and obstacles he overcame to get an education at the new Hampton University, to his work establishing vocational schools—most notably the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama—to help black people and other disadvantaged minorities learn useful, marketable skills and work to pull themselves, as a race, up by their own bootstraps.
See Washington And DuBois: Difference Or Dialectic
The Black Studies Movement
We offer RBG Street Scholars Think Tank in the spirit of Sankofa
The MAAFA is a Kiswahili term for “Disaster” or “Terrible Occurrence”. This is the word that best describe the more than 500 hundred years of suffering of people of African descent through Slavery, Imperialism, Colonialism, Invasions and Exploitation. In this lesson you see pictures, here audio and watch videos that tell some of the story of our suffering.
Students new to the study of the Black Diaspora may be surprised to learn that “[w]hen slavery ended in the United States in 1865, this country contained 30 percent of the Western Hemisphere’s population of African descent. Yet fewer than 5 percent of the Africans who reached the New World came to the region that became the United States. The 10 million brought to the West Indies and Latin America did not even reproduce themselves under slavery, while the 427,000 brought to North America became 4,500,000 by 1865. The principal reason for this startling contrast was not the greater humanity of North American slaveholders. The causes included the healthier climate of North America, the lesser physical demands of cotton and tobacco cultivation compared with sugar and coffee, and the legal abolition of the African slave trade by the United States in 1808, at the beginning of the cotton boom, which led Old South planters to increase their labor force by the reproduction of slaves rather than by their importation. In Brazil and the Caribbean, by contrast, the slave trade remained open during the heyday of sugar and coffee, and it was cheaper to import slaves from Africa than to raise them from birth” (Segal qtd. in MacPherson).
Segal believes the “soul” of the Black Diaspora is “freedom. . . . It was in slavery that the diaspora was born, together with the longing and struggle for freedom”; this past is “one of victimization and suffering, but also one of courage and resilience and creativity” (qtd. in MacPherson). “While abroad, individuals maintain their social identity by living in communities which trace their origins to the homeland”: “Diaspora” has meaning only so long as the “idea of an ancestral home” is kept alive (Lovejoy). African slaves and their descendants carried skills and communitarian values, rich cultural traditions, resiliency, and an ethos of resistance that transformed and enriched the cultures they entered around the world. Thus, as African peoples were globally dispersed, they carried their traditions of cultural creativity and oral arts with them, such as “common musical rhythms, exploration of multicolors…and diverse textures, play on repetition, and call-and-response modes of verbal activity” (Asante and Abarry 111). African folktales, often featuring the tortoise, hare, and spider, widespread on the African continent, were carried from Africa to the Caribbean, Latin America, and the United States. Though enslaved and uprooted, Diasporic blacks of African descent used their lives and experiences to preserve and reshape their cultures and institutions in new lands, forging new sources of strength, resistance, and hope.
Adapted and modified from a course outline:
Reference Resource Link Out for Further Study:
In a controversial 1992 revision, sociologists Stewart E. Tolnay and E.M. Beck, argue that duplication of reporting produced an over count.
They claim only 2,805 lynchings (nearly 2500 of which were Blacks) can be documented between 1882 and 1930, in ten southern states.”
From: NAACP, Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States: 1889-1918 (New York: Arno Press, 1919), p. 29 and Stewart E. Tolnay and E.M. Beck, Festival of Violence: An Analysis of Southern Lynching, 1882-1930 (Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois)..
For 246 years, enslaved Afrikan (our ancestors) endured inhuman living conditions, torture and rape, legally enforced servitude, and other horrendous crimes against humanity. Meanwhile, countless American corporations sponsored or benefited from the uncompensated labor and exploitation of these slaves.
In 1863, President Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation began the process of freeing the more than 4 million slaves of Afrikan descent in the United States. But while slavery was abolished, sharecropping, “black codes”, and Jim Crow laws perpetuated restrictions upon the freed Afrikans/Negroes. Dozens of corporations continued to benefit from unpaid labor, allowing these companies to flourish.
Citing the persisting legacy of slavery, four descendants of these slaves filed class action lawsuits seeking reparations and reconciliation on behalf of the approximately 35 million living descendants of slaves. These lawsuits—filed on March 26th and May 1st, 2002—name six major American corporations that profited from the slave trade and the institution of slavery.
The plaintiffs were seeking access to documents revealing corporate slavery connections and compensation for unpaid labor that is long overdue.
For further study of Our Holocaust and the issue of Reparations link out to (see links above also):